Absolute speed limit - The maximum or minimum legal speed at which one may
drive. This speed limit may or may not be posted.
Accident, motor vehicle - Any mishap involving a moving vehicle and resulting in
death, injury or property damage.
Articulated vehicle - Any motor vehicle with a trailer having no front axle and
so attached that part of the trailer rests upon the motor
vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the trailer
and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle.
Basic speed limit - Any speed below the absolute limit that is safe for
existing road, weather or traffic conditions.
Collision - Any crash between motor vehicles or between a motor
vehicle and another object.
Driving license - A legal document in the form of plastic identification card
and official receipt issued by LTO authorizing a person to
drive and operate a specified type of motor vehicle after
satisfactorily completing and passing the standard
requirement as categorized either non-professional or
professional proficiency level.
Defensive driving - Being prepared to handle through any hazardous
situation caused by other users of the road.
Directional signals - Lights on motor vehicle or hand signals used to indicate
left and right turns and stops.
Driver - Person with appropriate license to drive or operate motor
vehicle and transport passengers and loads over
specified routes or destination.
Professional driver - A person with appropriate driving license restriction code
who is hired or paid for driving or operating a motor
vehicle, whether for private use or for hire to the public.
Fare - Refers to the price charged to transport a passenger
Franchised route - Refers to the designated travel route assigned by LTFRB
(DOTC) to a specific public passenger motor vehicle
indicating the particular main streets, roads and avenues
to ply including its limitations and boundaries.
Gross weight - The measured weight of a motor vehicle plus the
maximum allowable carrying capacity in merchandise,
freight and/or passengers, as determined by the
Commission of Land Transportation
Highways - Every public thoroughfare, public boulevard, driveway,
avenue, park, alley and callejon, but does not include
roadway upon grounds owned by private persons,
colleges, universities, or other similar institutions.
Motor vehicle - Any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular
power using the public highways, but excepting road
rollers, trolley cars, street sweepers, sprinklers, lawn
mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork lifts, amphibian trucks
and cranes if not used on public highways and vehicles
run only on rails or tracks and tractors, trailers and
traction engines of all kinds used exclusively for
Passenger bus - A public utility vehicle driven on highways that
carry/transport passengers (usually from 30 above) and
Periodic Maintenance Service - The regular servicing prescribed by manufacturer to
maintain the vehicle’s top performance.
Regulatory signs - Traffic signs that tell what a driver must or must not do
under penalty of the law.
Restriction Codes 1 and 2 - Driving license restriction set by LTO for
driving/operating of the following classification of motor
Restriction Codes 1 and 2 - Motorcycle, motorized tricycles and vehicles up to 4,500
Restriction Code 3 - Vehicles above 4,500 kgs GVW
Restriction Code 4 - Vehicles Automatic Clutch up to 4,500 kgs GVW
Restriction Code 5 - Vehicles Automatic Clutch above to 4,500 kgs GVW
Restriction Code 6 - Articulated Vehicle 1,600kgs GVW and below
Restriction Code 7 - Articulated Vehicle 1,601 up to 4,500 kgs GVW
Restriction Code 8 - Articulated vehicle with 4,501 kilograms and above gross
Road Related Accident and Emergency - Refers to unforeseen and unanticipated road happenings
usually resulted from by driver’s negligence/error,
abnormal road condition and motor vehicle mechanical
safety breakdown resulting to grave vehicular accident,
passenger body injury and damage to property.
Roadway markings - Markings on a pavement separating lanes of travel or
indicating what a driver may do.
Seat belt - A belt anchored to the vehicle frame. It prevents the
passengers from being thrown against parts of the
interior of the vehicle or from the vehicle in the event of a
Straight Truck - Any vehicle equipped with 6 up to 12 wheels with no
Traffic - The flow of all motor vehicles and pedestrians along the
street and the highway
Traffic signal lights - Traffic controls which usually located at intersections to
regulate traffic flow
Warning signs - Traffic signs that alert drivers to potential hazards ahead